Steps Involved in IVF:

Procedure Description

What is Chemotherapy?

Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells or prevent them from growing and dividing. Unlike surgery or radiation therapy that targets specific areas, chemotherapy works throughout the entire body, making it effective for cancers that have spread to various parts of the body.

Why is Chemotherapy Needed?

Chemotherapy can be used in several ways: to cure cancer, to control its growth, to reduce the chances of cancer returning after the main treatment, or to alleviate symptoms of advanced cancer. The need for chemotherapy depends on factors like the type of cancer, its stage, the health of the patient, and other treatments that the patient might be undergoing.

How Does Chemotherapy Work?

Cancer cells grow and divide at a rapid rate. Chemotherapy drugs are designed to target these fast-growing cells. However, there are other cells in the body, like those in the hair, skin, and intestines, that also grow quickly. This is why chemotherapy might cause side effects like hair loss or digestive issues, as these fast-growing healthy cells are affected too.

Procedure Duration

Duration of Chemotherapy Sessions:

A single session of chemotherapy can vary in length, depending on the specific drugs being used and the patient's individual treatment plan. A session might last anywhere from a few minutes to several hours.

Treatment Cycle and Frequency:

Typically, a patient undergoes chemotherapy in cycles. This means a period of treatment followed by a period of rest to allow the body to recover. A cycle can range from every week to every month, with the entire treatment duration spanning several months to even years, depending on the cancer type and its severity.

Recovery Time:

Post-chemotherapy, patients might feel tired or experience side effects for a few days to a week. It's essential to understand that the body's reaction to chemotherapy is individual, and recovery times can differ based on the drugs used and the patient's overall health.


  • Cost Savings: Many countries offer chemotherapy at a fraction of the cost compared to more developed nations, without compromising the quality of care.
  • Expertise: Some destinations are known for their specialized oncologists with years of experience and high success rates.
  • Advanced Technology: Medical facilities abroad might have access to the latest chemotherapy drugs and techniques.
  • Personalized Care: Medical tourists often report receiving more personalized attention and care abroad compared to their home countries.
  • Combining Treatment with Leisure: Patients can combine their treatment with a vacation in a new destination, which can be rejuvenating during such a stressful time.

Potential Destinations

  • India: Renowned for its top-notch cancer hospitals in cities like Mumbai and Bangalore.
  • Thailand: Bangkok and Chiang Mai are known for state-of-the-art medical facilities offering chemotherapy.
  • Mexico: Especially popular among North Americans due to proximity and cost-effectiveness.
  • Turkey: Istanbul and Ankara boast world-class hospitals with specialized oncology departments.
  • Singapore: Recognized globally for its medical excellence, especially in cancer care.

Risks & Considerations

  • Quality of Care: Ensure the destination offers quality care, equivalent or better than in your home country.
  • Travel Stress: Long flights and adjusting to a new environment can be stressful, especially for a cancer patient.
  • Cultural Differences: Understanding and adjusting to a new culture can be challenging.
  • Language Barriers: Ensure there are English-speaking staff or interpreters available.
  • Follow-up Care: Ensure you have a plan for follow-up care upon returning home.

How to Choose the Right Doctor and Hospital

  • Credentials: Check the qualifications and experience of the oncologist.
  • Reviews: Look for patient testimonials or reviews online.
  • Accreditation: Ensure the hospital has international accreditations or certifications.
  • Facilities: Ensure the hospital has up-to-date equipment and facilities.
  • Communication: Make sure you can communicate comfortably with both the medical team and the administrative staff.

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Patients are advised to seek hospitals that are accredited by Global Healthcare and only work with medical tourism facilitators who are certified by Global Healthcare Accreditation or who have undergone certification from the Certified Medical Travel Professionals (CMTP). This ensures that the highest standards in the industry are met. GHA accredits the top hospitals in the world. These are the best hospitals in the world for quality and providing the best patient experience. Click the link to check out hospitals accredited by the Global Healthcare Accreditation:

Frequently Asked Questions

What actually happens during hyperstimulation of the ovaries?

The patient will take injectable FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) for eight to eleven days, depending on how long the follicles take to mature. This hormone is produced naturally in a woman’s body causing one egg to develop per cycle. Taking the injectable FSH causes several follicles to develop at once, at approximately the same rate. The development is monitored with vaginal ultrasounds and following the patient’s levels of estradiol and progesterone. FSH brand names include Repronex, Follistim, Menopur, Gonal-F and Bravelle. The patient injects herself daily.

What happens during egg retrieval?

When the follicles have developed enough to be harvested, the patient attends an appointment  where she is anesthetized and prepared for the procedure. Next, the doctor uses an ultrasound probe to guide a needle through the vaginal wall and into the follicle of the ovary. The thin needle draws the follicle fluid, which is then examined by an embryologist to find the eggs. The whole process takes about 20 minutes.

What happens to the eggs?

In the next step, the harvested eggs are then fertilized. If the sperm from the potential father, or in some cases, anonymous donor, has normal functionality, the eggs and sperm are placed together in a dish with a nutrient fluid, then incubated overnight to fertilize normally. If the sperm functionality is suboptimal, an embryologist uses Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection to inject a single sperm into a single egg with an extremely precise glass needle.  Once fertilization is complete, the embryos are assessed and prepared to be transferred to the patient’s uterus.

How are the embryos transferred back to the uterus?

The doctor and the patient will discuss the number of embryos to be transferred. The number of successfully fertilized eggs usually determines the number of eggs to be placed in the uterus. Embryos are transferred to the uterus with transabdominal ultrasound guidance. This process does not require anesthesia, but it can cause minor cervical or uterine discomfort. Following transfer, the patient is advised to take at least one days bed rest and two or three additional days of rest, then 10 to 12 days later, two pregnancy tests are scheduled to confirm success. Once two positive tests are completed, an obstetrical ultrasound is ordered to show the sac, fetal pole, yolk sac and fetal heart rate.


Built into this technology there is a microscope with a powerful camera that allows the uninterrupted monitoring of the embryo during its first hours of life. In this way, we can keep a close eye on the embryo, from the moment when the oocyte is inseminated and begins to divide into smaller and smaller cells, until it can be transferred to the uterus.

Orthopedics Stem Cell


Research on mesenchymal stem cells regenerative properties in knee osteoarthritis. In these studies, researchers suggest that Stem Cell Therapy has the potential to regenerate lost cartilage, stop and reverse cartilage degeneration, provide pain relief, and improve patient mobility.


Stem Cell Therapy as an Alternative to Rotator Cuff & Shoulder Replacement Surgery. Stem cell therapy may offer an excellent alternative for patients looking to avoid shoulder joint replacement surgery, as well as many other surgical treatments for shoulder pain.


If you suffer from chronic or acute ankle pain or instability due to arthritis, cartilage loss, ligament strain or tear, or tendon damage, then you may benefit from non-surgical stem cell treatments or stem cell-enhanced surgery.

Back Pain

Patients now have a minimally invasive option. Stem cell therapy for back pain and disc herniations can potentially repair the damaged disc or facet joint, restore function, rehydrate the disc, and ultimately alleviate chronic pain.

Anti-Aging Stem Cell

Hair Loss

Stem cell therapy and PRP therapy have been shown to be most effective for: Those in the early stages of hair loss, patients who are not viable candidates for surgery and women who prefer to avoid hair surgery.

Facial Anti-Aging

Aesthetic Anti-Aging. The Aesthetic Stem Cell Localized Treatment is a non-surgical minimally invasive procedure to enhance the appearance of aging skin and hair restoration. This all-natural technique combines dermal injections of bone marrow or adipose tissue derived stem cells and growth factors.

Fertility Stem Cell

Endometrial PRP

The stem cells used for treatment of a thin endometrium include mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, successful repair of the endometrium in pregnancy with stem cells has been reported previously.

Low Ovarian Reserve (PRP)

The treatment uses PRP (Platelet-Rich-Plasma), which with stem cell therapy is the novel therapeutic approach for restoring the quality of the ovarian reserve.Your PRP will contain a physiologic balance of platelets, growth factors and white blood cells tailored specifically for you.

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